Rohit Naniwadekar

Scientist, Eastern Himalaya

P1090619

Ph.D.

Rohit is interested in frugivory, seed dispersal and conservation of tropical forests and its inhabitants. His doctoral research focused on understanding the frugivory and seed dispersal by hornbills and their conservation status in Arunachal Pradesh. Subsequently, he has been involved in conducting a survey of hornbills across five states in north-east India to understand change in their distribution in the last 20 years. He is also involved in a telemetry study to understand the movement patterns of hornbills and is part of the Hornbill Watch team that aims to document hornbill presence across the country. 

His prior research has focused on understanding processes that govern the diversity patterns of amphibians in the wet forests of Western Ghats and in conducting surveys for large mammals in north-east India. His other interests include reading non-fiction and listening to Hindustani Classical Music. 

Projects

White winged duck 2 garimabhatia

Endangered bird distributions

Understanding distributions of White-bellied Heron and White-winged Duck 

Mrunal interview 20in 20mizoram

Completed

Hornbill survey across North-east India

Survey to assess the status of hornbills in five north-eastern states

Dscn1752

Completed

Plant-disperser mutualistic networks

Understanding the role of hornbills in plant-disperser networks

Flock 20of 20wreathed 20hornbills 20in 20pakke kalyan 20verma

Tracking hornbill movements and seeds

Hornbill ranging, fruit distribution and implications for seed dispersal

Publications

  • Journal Article
    In press
    Large frugivores matter: insights from network and seed dispersal effectiveness approaches
    Journal of Animal Ecology ( https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.13005)

    We evaluated the role of large avian frugivores in a plant‐disperser community by a) determining whether the plant‐disperser community was modular, with a distinct community of large frugivores (thereby highlighting their importance), b) determining relative qualitative and quantitative roles played by large‐bodied frugivores vis‐à‐vis other frugivores and c) determining impacts of large‐bodied frugivore loss on the plant‐disperser community. The study was carried at a tropical forest site in north‐east India which is part of the Eastern Himalaya Biodiversity Hotspot. We collected tree watch data (2055 h) from 46 tree species, which represented 85% of tree species that are predominantly bird‐dispersed in the area. We found that the plant‐disperser community was modular, with a distinct module of large‐seeded tree species and large frugivores. Intermediate‐sized frugivores such as barbets and bulbuls were the most connected, while large‐sized frugivores, such as hornbills and imperial‐pigeons were moderately well‐connected. Qualitative and quantitative roles played by different dispersers varied across the gradient of frugivore body size. Hornbills, the largest avian frugivores, consumed a significantly greater number of fruits and swallowed larger proportions of fruits compared to other avian groups. In comparison to similar‐sized frugivores, imperial‐pigeons fed on larger‐sized fruits, highlighting their importance for dispersal of large‐seeded plants. Under simulated extinction scenarios, larger extinction cascades weren't necessarily caused by larger frugivores, however, extinctions of certain large‐bodied frugivores (hornbills, imperial‐pigeons) caused extinction cascades. Integrating information from networks and seed dispersal effectiveness approaches enabled a better understanding of large frugivore role in a plant‐disperser community. While large‐bodied frugivores may not be playing a central role in plant‐disperser communities, they are crucial as seed dispersal service providers for large‐seeded plants. In conjunction with the reported local extinctions of large frugivores like hornbills from the south Asian region, this study's findings highlight the irreplaceable quantitative and qualitative impacts that tropical plant communities are likely to experience in the future.

  • Dataset
    2019
    Data from: Large frugivores matter: insights from network and seed dispersal effectiveness approaches
    https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m20hf10

    We evaluated the role of large avian frugivores in a plant‐disperser community by a) determining whether the plant‐disperser community was modular, with a distinct community of large frugivores (thereby highlighting their importance), b) determining relative qualitative and quantitative roles played by large‐bodied frugivores vis‐à‐vis other frugivores and c) determining impacts of large‐bodied frugivore loss on the plant‐disperser community. The study was carried at a tropical forest site in north‐east India which is part of the Eastern Himalaya Biodiversity Hotspot. We collected tree watch data (2055 h) from 46 tree species, which represented 85% of tree species that are predominantly bird‐dispersed in the area. We found that the plant‐disperser community was modular, with a distinct module of large‐seeded tree species and large frugivores. Intermediate‐sized frugivores such as barbets and bulbuls were the most connected, while large‐sized frugivores, such as hornbills and imperial‐pigeons were moderately well‐connected. Qualitative and quantitative roles played by different dispersers varied across the gradient of frugivore body size. Hornbills, the largest avian frugivores, consumed a significantly greater number of fruits and swallowed larger proportions of fruits compared to other avian groups. In comparison to similar‐sized frugivores, imperial‐pigeons fed on larger‐sized fruits, highlighting their importance for dispersal of large‐seeded plants. Under simulated extinction scenarios, larger extinction cascades weren't necessarily caused by larger frugivores, however, extinctions of certain large‐bodied frugivores (hornbills, imperial‐pigeons) caused extinction cascades. Integrating information from networks and seed dispersal effectiveness approaches enabled a better understanding of large frugivore role in a plant‐disperser community. While large‐bodied frugivores may not be playing a central role in plant‐disperser communities, they are crucial as seed dispersal service providers for large‐seeded plants. In conjunction with the reported local extinctions of large frugivores like hornbills from the south Asian region, this study's findings highlight the irreplaceable quantitative and qualitative impacts that tropical plant communities are likely to experience in the future.

  • Report
    2018
    Understanding impacts of hornbill loss on plants.
    Final report submitted to Arunachal Pradesh Forest Department, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh towards completion of the research project titled “Understanding Impacts of Hornbill Loss on Plants”.
    Download

    PDF, 21.2 MB

    While large avian frugivores are known to be key dispersers for large-seeded plants, their role in the wider plant-disperser networks is still poorly known. In this study, we evaluate the role of large avian frugivores in plant-disperser communities using network and seed dispersal effectiveness approaches in a tropical forest site in north-east India. We systematically-collected tree watch data from 46 plant species, representing 85 percent of typically bird-dispersed plant species, spanning over 2055 h. We found that the plant-disperser community was modular with a distinct community of large-sized seed plants and frugivores. While intermediate-sized birds such as barbets and bulbuls were the most connected, large-sized dispersers such as hornbills and Imperial-pigeons were moderately well-connected. Imperial-pigeons consistently fed on large-sized fruits, highlighting their importance for dispersal of large-seeded plants. In addition to frugivore-fruit size matching, frugivore dietary choices might play an important role in governing the organization of modules. There was a gradient in qualitative and quantitative roles played by different dispersers, with hornbills removing significantly larger number of fruits and consistently swallowing larger proportions of fruits as compared to other avian groups. Under simulated extinction scenarios, observed networks were far less resilient to disperser loss along a gradient of body size from large to small as compared to extinctions that were random or based on rarity. Given the paucity of information on plant-disperser networks from the South Asian region and reported local extinctions of large frugivores like hornbills, this study is important in highlighting that loss of large avian frugivores might have irreplaceable quantitative and qualitative damages to plant communities.

  • Journal Article
    2018
    Hornbill Watch: A citizen science initiative for Indian hornbills
    Aparajita Datta, Rohit Naniwadekar, Manisha Rao, Ramki Sreenivasan, Vikram Hiresavi
    Indian Birds, 14:65-70
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    PDF, 18.4 MB

    Hornbills are conspicuous and well-known birds with nine species occurring in India. While several hornbill species have been studied extensively in some parts of India, there is a knowledge gap about their distribution, population size, and adaptations to rapidly changing habitats. Most research and conservation efforts are often focused on single or few species within protected areas. Hornbill Watch (henceforth, HW) is an online platform created specifically to record public sightings of hornbills from anywhere in India. The idea is to encourage birders, nature enthusiasts, and photographers to share information on hornbill presence, behaviour, and conservation-related issues. The main objective is to generate baseline information using sight records and enable long-term monitoring of these species by encouraging citizen participation. HW was launched in June 2014, and up to February 2017 had received 938 records from 430 contributors across India, from 26 States and three Union Territories. States from where most sightings were reported were Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh. Species were reported from both inside (41%), and outside Protected Areas (59%; henceforth, PA). Hornbills were reported from 70 PAs. Fifty-one records of nesting were reported for all species from inside and outside PAs, while 27 records of communal roosting were reported for some species. The data obtained thus far has yielded some useful information and insights,and has the potential for enhancing our understanding of current hornbill distribution patterns, and for identifying important sites for conservation/protection.

  • Journal Article
    2018
    Breeding biology of Great Hornbill Buceros bicornis in tropical rainforest and human-modified plantation landscape in Western Ghats, India
    Ornithological Science, 17:205-216
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    PDF, 356 KB

    Loss of mature tropical forests to agricultural expansion often creates landscapes with forest fragments embedded within a matrix of human-modified habitats and land uses. Such habitat fragmentation may be detrimental to species with specialized habitat and foraging requirements and their ability to persist in such landscapes may depend on their adaptability to habitat modification. Great Hornbills Buceros bicornis, among the largest birds in Asian tropical rainforests, depend on large trees for nesting and a diverse array of patchily distributed fruiting trees. In the human-modified landscape of the Anamalai Hills, India, we compared the breeding biology and nesting behaviour of Great Hornbills in contiguous rainforest (N=3 nests) and in modified habitat consisting of coffee plantations and rainforest fragments (N=5 nests). The nesting cycle of seven of the eight nests monitored varied between 114 and 130 days. Nest provisioning behaviour was similar in contiguous forest and modified habitat in terms of visitation and food delivery rates, but visitation tended to be higher and food delivery rate lower during the nestling phase than during incubation. As expected, tree density and native food plant diversity were lower in modified habitat than in continuous forest. The diversity of food provisioned was lower in modified habitat with a 57.5% dietary overlap with contiguous forest. Hornbills in the modified habitat of coffee plantations used non-native tree species for nesting and foraging, indicating their adaptability to modified landscapes.

  • Dataset
    2016
    Data from: Spatial and temporal variation in hornbill densities in Namdapha Tiger Reserve, Arunachal Pradesh, north-east India
    DOI: doi:10.5061/dryad.qr068
  • Journal Article
    2016
    Abundance estimates of the Rufous-necked hornbill (Aceros nipalensis), and characterisation of a montane subtropical forest in the Indian Eastern Himalaya. 
    Indian Birds, Vol. 12, 4 & 5 14 November 2016
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    PDF, 715 KB

  • Journal Article
    2015
    Fruit resource tracking by hornbill species at multiple scales in a tropical forest in India
    Journal of Tropical Ecology, 31:477-490
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    PDF, 793 KB

    The fruit-tracking hypothesis predicts a positive association between frugivores and fruit abundance over space and time.We documented hornbill diets and examined the relationship between fruit abundance and abundance of three hornbill species (Buceros bicornis, Rhyticeros undulatus and Aceros nipalensis) in the Eastern Himalaya from 2009– 2012. The study was carried out at three scales: at the largest scale of the study area (15km2), at the intermediate scale – eight 3-ha patches within the study area and at the smallest scale of individual fruiting trees.Ninety-one per cent of the 64 foraging sightings of the great hornbill were on figs while more than 50% of the foraging sightings of the wreathed (83) and rufous-necked hornbills (87) were on non-fig fruits. At the largest scale, wreathed hornbill abundance and ripe fruit abundance peaked in the non-breeding season. At the intermediate scale, wreathed hornbill abundance was positively associated with non-fig fruit availability while rufous-necked hornbill abundance was negatively associated with non-fig fruit availability. At the smallest scale, great and rufous-necked hornbill abundances were correlatedwith fig and non-fig fruit crop sizes, respectively. The three hornbill species track fruit availability at different scales based on diet, which has implications for their role in seed dispersal.

  • Journal Article
    2015
    Looking beyond parks: the conservation value of unprotected areas for hornbills in Arunachal Pradesh, Eastern Himalaya
    Oryx, 49:303-311
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    PDF, 383 KB

    The loss of tropical forests and associated biodiversity is a global concern. Conservation efforts in tropical countries such as India have mostly focused on state-administered protected areas despite the existence of vast tracts of forest outside these areas. We studied hornbills (Bucerotidae), an ecologically important vertebrate group and a flagship for tropical forest conservation, to assess the importance of forests outside protected areas in Arunachal Pradesh, north-east India. We conducted a state-wide survey to record encounters with hornbills in seven protected areas, six state-managed reserved forests and six community-managed unclassed forests. We estimated the density of hornbills in one protected area, four reserved forests and two unclassed forests in eastern Arunachal Pradesh. The state-wide survey showed that the mean rate of encounter of rufous-necked hornbills Aceros nipalensis was four times higher in protected areas than in reserved forests and 22 times higher in protected areas than in unclassed forests. The mean rate of encounter of wreathed hornbills Rhyticeros undulatus was twice as high in protected areas as in reserved forests and eight times higher in protected areas than in unclassed forests. The densities of rufous-necked hornbill were higher inside protected areas, whereas the densities of great hornbill Buceros bicornis and wreathed hornbill were similar inside and outside protected areas. Key informant surveys revealed possible extirpation of some hornbill species at sites in two protected areas and three unclassed forests. These results highlight a paradoxical situation where individual populations of hornbills are being lost even in some legally protected habitat, whereas they continue to persist over most of the landscape. Better protection within protected areas and creative community- based conservation efforts elsewhere are necessary to maintain hornbill populations in this biodiversity-rich region.

  • Dataset
    2015
    Data of a study investigating impacts of hunting and logging on abundance of hornbills, dispersed seeds and recuits in north-east India
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.1cf35

    A study was carried out to investigate impacts of logging and hunting on hornbills (which are important seed dispersers), their large-seeded food plants, arrival of scatter-dispersed seeds of these plants and the recruitment pattern of these plants across a site experiencing logging and hunting pressures and a protected area site which did not experience these anthropogenic pressures. The associated data of the study is uploaded here.

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