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Sarus Cranes (Grus antigone) in India have benefited from long-standing cultural
and traditional values of farmers. Substantial breeding populations persist even on landscapes
entirely converted to human-dominated croplands. Four distinct population-level behaviors
are recognized. Prominent growing conservation challenges for Sarus Cranes are highlighted.
These include localized threats like egg mortality and land use change, and broader threats like
pesticide-related mortality, industrialization, land use change, and changing climate. Challenges
to Sarus Crane conservation are enormous, but persisting traditional agriculture and positive
farmer attitudes offer considerable advantages. Framing and developing initiatives around these
advantages will be critical to executing efficient and long-term conservation interventions.